For Clarity

Neville Chamberlain, prior to Winston Churchill, was prime minister of England.

He was duped by Hitler who in a conference stated he would cease his warlike actions.

He lied.

Chamberlain was replaced by the “tiger” Churchill.

Posterity will never forget, with the stump of a cigar in his mouth, in a broad British accent, his stirring voice, “We shall never surrender.” 

“We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender…”

For four years the English were being bombed both day and night. 

They endured many hardships with no complaints.

As soon as the indomitable English airforce came fighting the German bombers, the battle of Britain was won.

Churchill said, “Never in the field of human conflict was so much been owed by so many to so few.”

My hats off to them.


(November 3, 2021)

Author: Morrie Markoff

Centenarian (born in 1914) who lives in Los Angeles, and is also a metal sculpture artist and the Author of "Keep Breathing," available on and other book seller sites.